Panic The MotherPTM

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Addiction

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Addiction is often linked to mental health problems. If you have an addiction problem it may have started as a way to cope with feelings that you felt unable to deal with in any other way.

Adjustment disorder treatment

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Adjustment disorders are stress-related conditions. You experience more stress than would normally be expected in response to a stressful or unexpected event, and the stress causes significant problems in your relationships, at work or at school. Work problems, going away to school, an illness, death of a close family member or any number of life changes can cause stress. Most of the time, people adjust to such changes within a few months. But if you have an adjustment disorder, you continue to have emotional or behavioral reactions that can contribute to feeling anxious or depressed. You don't have to tough it out on your own, though. Treatment can be brief and it's likely to help you regain your emotional footing.

Agoraphobia

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Agoraphobia is a fear of being in situations where escape might be difficult or that help wouldn't be available if things go wrong. Most cases of agoraphobia develop as a complication of panic disorder. agoraphobia can sometimes develop if a person has a panic attack in a specific situation or environment. They begin to worry so much about having another panic attack that they feel the symptoms of a panic attack returning when they're in a similar situation or environment. This causes the person to avoid that particular situation or environment.

Alcohol use disorder

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Alcohol use disorder (which includes a level that's sometimes called alcoholism) is a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when you rapidly decrease or stop drinking.

Unhealthy alcohol use includes any alcohol use that puts your health or safety at risk or causes other alcohol-related problems. If your pattern of drinking results in repeated significant distress and problems functioning in your daily life, you likely have alcohol use disorder. It can range from mild to severe. However, even a mild disorder can escalate and lead to serious problems, so early treatment is important.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS)

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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is the name for the symptoms that occur when a heavy drinker suddenly stops or significantly reduces their alcohol intake. With AWS, you may experience a combination of physical and emotional symptoms, from mild anxiety and fatigue to nausea. Some symptoms of AWS are as severe as hallucinations and seizures. At its most extreme, AWS can be life-threatening.

Excessive drinking excites and irritates the nervous system. If you drink daily, your body becomes dependent on alcohol over time. When this happens, your central nervous system can no longer adapt easily to the lack of alcohol. If you suddenly stop drinking or significantly reduce the amount of alcohol you drink, it can cause AWS.

Anger

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Most people will experience episodes of anger which feel manageable and don't have a big impact on their lives. Learning healthy ways to recognise, express and deal with anger is important for our mental and physical health.

Anorexia nervosa

People with anorexia have problems with eating. They are very anxious about their weight and keep it as low as possible by strictly controlling and limiting what they eat. Many people with anorexia will also exercise excessively to lose weight.

It is thought that people with anorexia are so concerned about their weight because they: think they are fat or overweight,

have a strong fear of being fat, want to be thin. Some people with anorexia will also binge eat, i.e. they eat a lot of food in a short space of time. They then try to get rid of the food from their body by vomiting or using laxatives (medication that causes the bowels to empty; normally used for the treatment of constipation.)

The symptoms of anorexia usually begin gradually, such as adopting a restrictive diet. They then often spiral out of control quickly.

Antisocial personality disorder

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Personality disorders are mental health conditions that affect how someone thinks, perceives, feels or relates to others. Antisocial personality disorder is a particularly challenging type of personality disorder characterised by impulsive, irresponsible and often criminal behaviour. Someone with antisocial personality disorder will typically be manipulative, deceitful and reckless, and won't care for other people's feelings. Like other types of personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder is on a spectrum, which means it can range in severity from occasional bad behaviour to repeatedly breaking the law and committing serious crimes. Psychopaths are considered to have a severe form of antisocial personality disorder.

Anxiety

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Anxiety is a normal emotion that we all experience but becomes a mental health problem when someone finds they are feeling this way all or most of the time. The main symptoms are having a number of different worries that are excessive and out of proportion to a particular situation, and having difficulty in controlling one's worries. A person with generalised anxiety disorder may also feel irritable and have physical symptoms such as restlessness, feeling easily tired, tense muscles.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but the condition has been shown to run in families. Research has also identified a number of possible differences in the brains of people with ADHD compared to those who don't have the condition.

Other factors that have been suggested as potentially having a role in ADHD include: being born prematurely (before the 37th week of pregnancy), having a low birthweight ,smoking, alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy.

ADHD is more common in boys than girls. It's thought that around 2% to 5% of school-aged children may have the condition.

ADHD can occur in people of any intellectual ability, although it's more common in people with learning difficulties.

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Barbiturate dependence

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Barbiturates are a group of drugs in the class of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics, which generally describes their sleep-inducing and anxiety-decreasing effects.

Barbiturates can be extremely dangerous because the correct dose is difficult to predict. Even a slight overdose can cause comaor death. Barbiturates are also addictive and can cause a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome.

BDD-Body dysmorphic disorder

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Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an anxiety disorder related to body image. You might be given a diagnosis of BDD if you Experience obsessive worries about one or more perceived flaws in your physical appearance, and the flaw cannot be seen by others or appears very slight. Or develop compulsive behaviours and routines, such as excessive use of mirrors or picking your skin, to deal with the worries you have about the way you look. BDD can vary in severity from person to person and from day to day. For some of us, concerns around appearance may make it difficult to go out in public or see other people. This can have an impact on our work life and relationships with other people. Many people with BDD do not seek help because they are worried that people will judge them or think they are vain. This means that many people with BDD are likely to experience it for a long time before seeking support.

BEREAVEMENT

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Bereavement is the experience of losing someone important to us. It is characterised by grief, which is the process and the range of emotions we go through as we gradually adjust to the loss.

Losing someone important to us can be emotionally devastating - whether that be a partner, family member, friend or pet. It is natural to go through a range of physical and emotional processes as we gradually come to terms with the loss.

Bereavement affects everyone in different ways, and it's possible to experience any range of emotions. There is no right or wrong way to feel.

Benzodiazepine Abuse

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Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers. Familiar names include Valium and Xanax. They are some of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. When people without prescriptions obtain and take these drugs for their sedating effects, use turns into abuse.

Doctors may prescribe a benzodiazepine for the following legitimate medical conditions: Anxiety ,Insomnia, Alcohol withdrawal, Seizure control, Muscle relaxation, Inducing amnesia for uncomfortable procedures, Given before an anesthetic (such as before surgery).

Binge eating

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Binge eating is an eating disorder where a person feels compelled to overeat on a regular basis through regular binges. People who binge eat consume very large quantities of food over a short period of time, even when they are not hungry. Binges are often planned in advance and can involve the person buying "special" binge foods. In rare cases, people describe themselves as being in a "dazed state" during a binge – particularly binges during the night – and they are not able to recall what they ate. People who binge eat feel they have no control over their eating. They often binge in private because they feel embarrassed, guilty or disgusted with their behaviour after they have finished eating. Episodes of binge eating sometimes alternate with periods where the person cuts down on the amount of food they eat. This can lead to a vicious cycle that is difficult to break – where blood sugar levels rise and fall rapidly, and false messages are sent to the brain, which result in cravings for food when your body doesn't need it.

Bipolar disorder

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Bipolar disorder is a diagnosis given to someone who experiences extreme periods of low (depressed) and high (manic) moods. Bipolar disorder used to be referred to as manic depression, and some people still use this term. It can sometimes be called bipolar affective disorder too. Bipolar can make life very difficult. It can disrupt home-life, work, relationships, finances and physical health. If someone has bipolar they will probably experience symptoms to varying degrees for much of their lives. This doesn't mean they will not be able to live full and healthy lives, however.

During times of high mood, someone might act in a way which seems strange to others. They might make risky decisions or spend money they can't afford. When someone returns to a 'normal' or depressed mood they can feel embarrassed, ashamed or regretful. The risky decision-making can also put them in danger.

Borderline intellectual functioning

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Borderline intellectual functioning refers to estimated intelligence quotient scores within the 70 to 75 range on an intelligence test with an average of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. The range is called borderline because it is on the borderline of the criteria for the diagnosis of intellectual disabilities (historically referred to as mental retardation) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Consistent scores within the 70 to 75 range are considered suggestive of borderline intellectual functioning and may indicate a mental disability.

BPD - Borderline personality disorder

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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a type of personality disorder. You might be diagnosed with a personality disorder if you have difficulties with how you think and feel about yourself and other people, and are having problems in your life as a result.

brief psychotic disorder

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Brief psychotic disorder is one of a number of mental illnesses that are referred to as schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. Characteristics of this disorder may include hallucinations or delusions that last no more than one month. Studies show that a true brief psychotic episode that does not progress to another mental illness occurs in anywhere from one to four per 100,000 people, more commonly in women than in men. This illness usually develops in people 30-50 years of age, and an episode tends to last an average of 17 days. This differs somewhat from people who suffer from any first-time psychotic episode, which occurs in about 100,000 teens and young adults in the United States every year, has a peak onset between the ages of 15-25 years, and more commonly affects males versus females.

Bulimia nervosa

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Bulimia is an eating disorder and mental health condition.

People who have bulimia go through periods where they eat a lot of food in a very short amount of time (binge eating) and then make themselves sick, use laxatives (medication to help them poo) or do excessive exercise, or a combination of these, to try to stop themselves gaining weight.

Men and women of any age can get bulimia, but it's most common in young women and typically starts in the mid to late teens.

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Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder

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There is an association between caffeine ingestion and mental health. In fact, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) — the guide published by the American Psychiatric Association and used by healthcare professionals for the diagnosis of mental disorders — currently lists four caffeine-related disorders:caffeine intoxication, caffeine withdrawal, unspecified caffeine-related disorder, other caffeine-induced disorders (anxiety disorder, sleep disorder)

A 2008 study showed how caffeine increases alertness by blocking a brain chemical (adenosine) that makes you feel tired, while at the same time triggering the release of adrenalin that’s known to increase energy. If the amount of caffeine is high enough, these effects are stronger, resulting in caffeine-induced anxiety. While there are mental benefits to caffeine, high doses are known to induce anxiety symptoms, and people with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder are especially sensitive. A 2005 study noted that excessive caffeine consumption can lead to symptoms similar to psychiatric conditions including sleep and anxiety disorders, increasing hostility, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms.

Cannabis dependence

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Also commonly referred to as 'marijuana', 'grass' and 'weed', cannabis is a mixture of dried leaves, flowers and stems from the cannabis sativa plant and is the most commonly misused illegal substance in the UK. Cannabis is typically smoked, either in a cigarette form or via a pipe, while the drug may also be misused by brewing it in tea or cooking it in certain foods.

Cannabis affects your central nervous system to produce sensations including relaxation, mild euphoria, increased appetite and difficulties perceiving space and time. Many people mistakenly believe that cannabis is a safe or harmless substance, although if you misuse cannabis you expose yourself to both immediate harm and long-term damage, including the development of an addiction.

If you become addicted to cannabis, you will feel compelled to continue to misuse this substance, often in increasingly greater amounts, to the detriment of your health and wellbeing.

Capgras Syndroms

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Capgras syndrome is a psychological condition. It’s also known as “imposter syndrome” or “Capgras delusion.” People who experience this syndrome will have an irrational belief that someone they know or recognize has been replaced by an imposter. They may, for example, accuse a spouse of being an imposter of their actual spouse. This can be upsetting for both the person experiencing the delusion and the person who is accused of being an imposter.

In some cases, the person experiencing the delusion may believe an animal, object, or even a home is an imposter. Capgras syndrome can affect anyone, but it’s more common in women. In rare cases, it can also affect children.

Cataplexy

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Cataplexy is the term given to sudden muscular weakness triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, anger and surprise. The loss of muscle tone that occurs may range from a just-perceptible weakening of the facial muscles through weakness at the knees, to total collapse on the floor. Speech may be slurred, and eyesight impaired (double vision, inability to focus) but hearing and awareness remain undisturbed.

Cataplexy attacks generally last less than two minutes, and they may only last a few seconds, though some people have repeated attacks of cataplexy which persist for up to 30 minutes. During both mild and severe attacks, the person stays fully conscious.

Cataplexy attacks generally last less than two minutes, and they may only last a few seconds, though some people have repeated attacks of cataplexy which persist for up to 30 minutes. During both mild and severe attacks, the person stays fully conscious.

Catatonia

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Catatonia is a group of symptoms that usually involve a lack of movement and communication, and also can include agitation, confusion, and restlessness.

Until recently, it was thought of as a type of schizophrenia. But doctors now understand that other mental illnesses and some conditions that throw off your body’s metabolism also can make you catatonic. About 1 person in 10 who has a severe mental illness will have catatonia at some point.

Catatonia can be treated, but if it’s not, it can lead to life-threatening problems.

Circadian rhythm sleep disorder

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Circadian rhythm disorders are disruptions in a person’s circadian rhythm—a name given to the "internal body clock" that regulates the (approximately) 24-hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. The term circadian comes from Latin words that literally mean "around the day." The key feature of circadian rhythm disorders is a continuous or occasional disruption of sleep patterns. The disruption results from either a malfunction in the "internal body clock" or a mismatch between the "internal body clock" and the external environment regarding the timing and duration of sleep. As a result of the circadian mismatch, individuals with these disorders usually complain of insomnia at certain times and excessive sleepiness at other times of the day, resulting in work, school, or social impairment.

Claustrophobia

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Claustrophobia is the irrational fear of confined spaces. People affected by claustrophobia will often go out of their way to avoid confined spaces, such as lifts, tunnels, tube trains and public toilets. But avoiding these places may reinforce the fear. Some people with claustrophobia experience mild anxiety when in a confined space, while others have severe anxiety or a panic attack. The most common experience is a feeling or fear of losing control. It's estimated around 10% of the UK population are affected by claustrophobia during their lifetime

Cocaine dependence

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Cocaine is a powerful stimulant that can be highly addictive due to the short but intense high that it creates. This substance is usually snorted through the nose in white powder form, and because the resulting euphoric state is very brief, if you begin misusing cocaine often, you will likely build up more serious cocaine addiction symptoms, which can include a tolerance to the drug. This tolerance means that you will need to take more cocaine with increasing frequency in order to achieve the desired effects. Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine, which occurs when inhaling the vapours of the drug in its natural state, and appears in a rock-shaped form as opposed to the powdered version of cocaine. This method of taking the drug results in rapid onset of euphoria and stimulating symptoms, due to it being readily absorbed into your bloodstream. The signs and symptoms of cocaine addiction will vary from person to person, and this is the case with all types of substance misuse. However, there are several psychological, physical and behavioural symptoms that have been identified which have shown to be reliable indicators that you may be suffering from cocaine use disorder.

Conduct disorder

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Conduct disorder is a serious behavioral and emotional disorder that can occur in children and teens. A child with this disorder may display a pattern of disruptive and violent behavior and have problems following rules.

It is not uncommon for children and teens to have behavior-related problems at some time during their development. However, the behavior is considered to be a conduct disorder when it is long-lasting and when it violates the rights of others, goes against accepted norms of behavior and disrupts the child's or family's everyday life.

Conversion disorder

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Imagine taking a hard fall off your bike and then not being able to move your arm -- but your arm isn’t injured. Neither is any other part of your body. Is the paralysis all in your head? Actually, it might be.

You could have what’s called conversion disorder. It’s a neurological condition that causes physical symptoms -- like a paralyzed arm -- even though doctors can’t find any injury or other physical condition to explain them.

In other words, your body converted your emotional and psychological stress from falling off your bike into the physical response of your paralyzed arm. It might seem strange, but your symptoms are real, and you can’t control them.

Cotard Delusion

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Cotard delusion is a rare condition marked by the false belief that you or your body parts are dead, dying, or don’t exist. It usually occurs with severe depression and some psychotic disorders. It can accompany other mental illnesses and neurological conditions. You might also hear it referred to as walking corpse syndrome, Cotard’s syndrome, or nihilistic delusion.

One of the main symptoms of Cotard delusion is nihilism. Nihilism is the belief that nothing has any value or meaning. It can also include the belief that nothing really exists. People with Cotard delusion feel as if they’re dead or rotting away. In some cases, they might feel like they’ve never existed.

Cyclothymia

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Cyclothymia, or cyclothymic disorder, causes mood changes – from feeling low to emotional highs. Cyclothymia has many similarities to bipolar disorder. Most people's symptoms are mild enough that they don't seek mental health treatment, or the emotional highs feel nice, so they don't realise there's anything wrong or want to seek help. This means cyclothymia often goes undiagnosed and untreated. But the mood swings can affect daily life, and cause problems with personal and work relationships. If you think you have cyclothymia, it's important to seek help from your GP. People with cyclothymia are at risk of developing bipolar disorder, so it's important to get help before reaching this later stage. Men and women of any age can get cyclothymia, but it's more common in women.

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Delirium Tremens (DTs)

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Delirium tremens (DTs) is the most severe form of ethanol withdrawal, manifested by altered mental status (global confusion) and sympathetic overdrive (autonomic hyperactivity), which can progress to cardiovascular collapse. Minor alcohol withdrawal is characterized by tremor, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia. Major alcohol withdrawal signs and symptoms include visual hallucinations and auditory hallucinations, whole body tremor, vomiting, diaphoresis, and hypertension (high blood pressure). DTs is the most severe manifestation of alcohol withdrawal and clinical manifestations include agitation, global confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, fever, hypertension, diaphoresis, and autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia and hypertension). Profound global confusion is the hallmark of delirium tremens. DTs is a medical emergency with a high mortality rate, making early recognition and treatment essential.

Delusional Disorder

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Delusional disorder, previously called paranoid disorder, is a type of serious mental illness called a psychotic disorder. People who have it can’t tell what’s real from what is imagined.

Delusions are the main symptom of delusional disorder. They’re unshakable beliefs in something that isn’t true or based on reality. But that doesn’t mean they’re completely unrealistic. Delusional disorder involves delusions that aren’t bizarre, having to do with situations that could happen in real life, like being followed, poisoned, deceived, conspired against, or loved from a distance. These delusions usually involve mistaken perceptions or experiences. But in reality, the situations are either not true at all or highly exaggerated.

Dementia

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Dementia is generally chronic or progressive in nature and entails a deterioration of cognitive function beyond normal aging, impacting about 50 million people across the globe. From memory, orientation and thinking, to comprehension, calculation, and language, the decline in cognitive function is generally met with deterioration in emotional and social control. Dementia is caused by a variety of diseases that impact the brain, and there is currently no cure available, but there are palliativte treatments designed to ease the suffering and confusion of the sufferer.

Depersonalization disorder

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Depersonalization disorder is marked by periods of feeling disconnected or detached from one's body and thoughts (depersonalization). The disorder is sometimes described as feeling like you are observing yourself from outside your body or like being in a dream. However, people with this disorder do not lose contact with reality; they realize that things are not as they appear. An episode of depersonalization can last anywhere from a few minutes to (rarely) many years. Depersonalization also might be a symptom of other disorders, including some forms of substance abuse, certain personality disorders, seizure disorders, and certain other brain diseases.

Depersonalization disorder is one of a group of conditions called dissociative disorders. Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, consciousness, awareness, identity, and/or perception. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, symptoms can result. These symptoms can interfere with a person's general functioning, including social and work activities and relationships.

Depersonalization-derealization disorder

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Depersonalization-derealization disorder occurs when you persistently or repeatedly have the feeling that you're observing yourself from outside your body or you have a sense that things around you aren't real, or both. Feelings of depersonalization and derealization can be very disturbing and may feel like you're living in a dream.

Many people have a passing experience of depersonalization or derealization at some point. But when these feelings keep occurring or never completely go away and interfere with your ability to function, it's considered depersonalization-derealization disorder. This disorder is more common in people who've had traumatic experiences.

Depersonalization-derealization disorder can be severe and may interfere with relationships, work and other daily activities. The main treatment for depersonalization-derealization disorder is talk therapy (psychotherapy), although sometimes medications also are used.

Depression

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The main symptoms are feeling 'low' and losing pleasure in things that were once enjoyable. These symptoms may be combined with others, such as feeling tearful, irritable or tired most of the time, changes in appetite, and problems with sleep, concentration and memory. People with depression typically have lots of negative thoughts and feelings of guilt and worthlessness. They often criticise themselves and lack confidence.

Dermatillomania

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Also called dermatillomania or excoriation disorder, skin picking disorder is where you cannot stop picking at your skin. There are things you can try to help yourself, but some people may need professional treatment.

Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD)

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Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD), also known as dyspraxia, is a condition affecting physical co-ordination. It causes a child to perform less well than expected in daily activities for their age, and appear to move clumsily. DCD is thought to be around 3 or 4 times more common in boys than girls, and the condition sometimes runs in families. This topic is about DCD in children, although the condition often causes continued problems into adulthood.

Early developmental milestones of crawling, walking, self-feeding and dressing may be delayed in young children with DCD. Drawing, writing and performance in sports are also usually behind what is expected for their age.

Although signs of the condition are present from an early age, children vary widely in their rate of development. This means a definite diagnosis of DCD does not usually happen until a child with the condition is 5 years old or more.

Diogenes syndrome

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Diogenes syndrome happens when a person does not take care of themselves or their surroundings, leading to poor hygiene and possibly some health and social problems. It often occurs with other conditions, such as dementia.

Dissociative disorders

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Dissociative disorders are a range of conditions that can cause physical and psychological problems. Some dissociative disorders are very shortlived, perhaps following a traumatic life event, and resolve on their own over a matter of weeks or months. Others can last much longer.

Dissociation is a way the mind copes with too much stress. People who dissociate may feel disconnected from themselves and the world around them. Periods of dissociation can last for a relatively short time (hours or days) or for much longer (weeks or months). It can sometimes last for years, but usually if a person has other dissociative disorders. Many people with a dissociative disorder have had a traumatic event during childhood.

Dissociative Fugue

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Dissociative fugue, formerly called psychogenic fugue, is one of a group of conditions called dissociative disorders. The word fugue comes from the Latin word for "flight." People with dissociative fugue temporarily lose their sense of personal identity and impulsively wander or travel away from their homes or places of work. They often become confused about who they are and might even create new identities. Outwardly, people with this disorder show no signs of illness, such as a strange appearance or odd behavior.

Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, conscious awareness, identity, and/or perception. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, symptoms can result. These symptoms can interfere with a person's general functioning, including social and work activities, and relationships.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)

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Dissociative identity disorder (previously known as multiple personality disorder) is thought to be a complex psychological condition that is likely caused by many factors, including severe trauma during early childhood (usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse).

Dissociative identity disorder is a severe form of dissociation, a mental process which produces a lack of connection in a person's thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity. Dissociative identity disorder is thought to stem from a combination of factors that may include trauma experienced by the person with the disorder. The dissociative aspect is thought to be a coping mechanism -- the person literally shuts off or dissociates himself from a situation or experience that's too violent, traumatic, or painful to assimilate with his conscious self.

Dyscalculia

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Dyscalculia is a term that’s used to refer to various conditions that cause people difficulties with learning maths. Research into dyscalculia is at an early phase. There’s not yet a standard definition of what dyscalculia is or what causes it. Because of this, it’s difficult to say how many people suffer from it, but it’s thought that around 5% of school-age children have dyscalculia.

Learners with dyscalculia may have difficulty counting and understanding the relationships between numbers (eg. that six is one more than five, or that there are two twos in four). They may also struggle to understand the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing).

People who have dyscalculia can still improve their maths skills – they might just need to take a different approach. A structured approach using real objects and lots of discussion is the best way for someone with dyscalculia to learn maths.

Dyslexia

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It's a specific learning difficulty, which means it causes problems with certain abilities used for learning, such as reading and writing. Unlike a learning disability, intelligence isn't affected. It's estimated up to 1 in every 10 people in the UK has some degree of dyslexia. Dyslexia is a lifelong problem that can present challenges on a daily basis, but support is available to improve reading and writing skills and help those with the problem be successful at school and work.

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Eating disorders

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Eating disorders are characterised by an abnormal attitude towards food that causes someone to change their eating habits and behaviour.

A person with an eating disorder may focus excessively on their weight and shape, leading them to make unhealthy choices about food with damaging results to their health.

Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, Binge Eating.

Enuresis (not due to a general medical condition)

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Enuresis is more commonly known as bed-wetting. Nocturnal enuresis, or bed-wetting at night, is the most common type of elimination disorder. Daytime wetting is called diurnal enuresis. Some children experience either or a combination of both.

This behavior may or may not be purposeful. The condition is not diagnosed unless the child is 5 years or older.

Epilepsy

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Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated seizures. Epilepsy is estimated to affect more than 500,000 people in the UK. This means that almost one in every 100 people has the condition. Epilepsy can start at any age, but it most often begins during childhood. It's often not possible to identify a specific reason why someone develops the condition, although some cases – particularly those that occur later in life – are associated with damage to the brain. For example, epilepsy can be caused by strokes, brain tumours and severe head injuries. Some cases of epilepsy may be caused by changes in the brain that occur as a result of the genes you inherit from your parents.

Erectile Disorder

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Erectile disorder symptoms include the persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of sexual activity, an adequate erection. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The erectile dysfunction is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (other than a sexual dysfunction) and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Erotomania

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A person with erotomania has a delusional belief that another person is in love with him or her despite clear evidence against it. The object of the person’s delusions is often a celebrity or a person of a higher social status. An individual may believe that this person is communicating with them and affirming their love, using secret messages.

Erotomania may be a symptom of a psychiatric illness, including schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, bipolar disorder, or Alzheimer’s disease.

Erotomania is a type of delusional disorder. Other types include delusions of persecution, grandiosity, or jealousy.

Exhibitionistic Disorder

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Exhibitionism is characterized by achievement of sexual excitement through genital exposure, usually to an unsuspecting stranger. It may also refer to a strong desire to be observed by other people during sexual activity. Exhibitionistic disorder involves acting on these urges with a nonconsenting person or experiencing significant distress or functional impairment because of such urges and impulses.

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Factitious disorder

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Factitious disorder is a serious mental disorder in which someone deceives others by appearing sick, by purposely getting sick or by self-injury. Factitious disorder also can happen when family members or caregivers falsely present others, such as children, as being ill, injured or impaired. Factitious disorder symptoms can range from mild (slight exaggeration of symptoms) to severe (previously called Munchausen syndrome). The person may make up symptoms or even tamper with medical tests to convince others that treatment, such as high-risk surgery, is needed

Factitious disorder is not the same as inventing medical problems for practical benefit, such as getting out of work or winning a lawsuit. Although people with factitious disorder know they are causing their symptoms or illnesses, they may not understand the reasons for their behaviors or recognize themselves as having a problem.

Factitious disorder is challenging to identify and hard to treat. However, medical and psychiatric help are critical for preventing serious injury and even death caused by the self-harm typical of this disorder.

Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Symptoms

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Persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement.

The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.

The sexual dysfunction is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Fetishistic Disorder Symptoms

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The paraphiliac focus in fetishistic disorder (formerly known as fetishism) involves the eroticization of nonliving objects and/or body parts for sexual gratification. Among the more common non-living fetish objects are women’s underpants, bras, stockings, shoes, boots, or other wearing apparel. An individual with a fetish for a body part (e.g., feet, hair) will eroticize a non-genital body part during sexual encounter. It is not uncommon for sexualized fetishes to include both inanimate objects andbody parts (e.g., dirty socks with feet). Fetishistic disorder can be a multisensory experience, including holding, tasting, rubbing, inserting, or smelling the fetish object while masturbating, or preferring that a sexual partner wear or utilize a fetish object during sexual encounters. In the treatment-seeking samples observed, this disorder occurs almost exclusively in males; women generally do not exhibit this disorder, and more information is needed to determine whether this disorder occurs to any significant degree within the female sex

Folie à deux

EXPERTS
Folie à deux is defined as an identical or similar mental disorder affecting two or more individuals, usually the members of a close family. Two case reports of this condition are presented with a brief review of the literature. Prompt recognition of this condition is an essential step in the management. The majority of patients with folie à deux require multiple treatments including separation, antipsychotics, individual and group psychotherapy, and family therapy.

The term folie à deux includes several syndromes in which mental symptoms, particularly paranoid delusions, are transmitted from one person to one or more others with whom the apparent instigator is in some way intimately associated so that he or she and they come to share the same delusional ideas.

Folie à deux is undoubtedly an intriguing condition of great relevance to the understanding of human psychopathology. It is perhaps the most impressive example of a pathological relationship and, therefore, an understanding of its underlying mechanism has theoretical implications for other kinds of disturbed interpersonal relationships.

Fregoli delusion

EXPERTS
The Fregoli delusion is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise. The syndrome may be related to a brain lesion and is often of a paranoid nature, with the delusional person believing themselves persecuted by the person they believe is in disguise.

A person with the Fregoli delusion can also inaccurately recall places, objects, and events. This disorder can be explained by "associative nodes". The associative nodes serve as a biological link of information about other people with a particular familiar face (to the patient). This means that for any face that is similar to a recognizable face to the patient, the patient will recall that face as the person they know.

The Fregoli delusion is classed both as a monothematic delusion, since it only encompasses one delusional topic, and as a delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS), a class of delusional beliefs that involves misidentifying people, places, or objects. Like Capgras delusion, psychiatrists believe it is related to a breakdown in normal face perception.

Frotteurism Symptoms

EXPERTSTS
Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person.

The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

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Gaming Disorder

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Gaming disorder is characterized by a pattern of persistent or recurrent gaming behavior (also referred to as digital gaming or video-gaming), that may be primarily conducted over the Internet (online) or primarily conducted not on the Internet (offline). It creates not only significant distress in the person when they are not engaged in gaming, but the person feels like they have little or no control in how often or for how long they are gaming. Gaming is given a huge precedence in the person’s life, over virtually everything else of importance (such as going to school, work, family relationships, interpersonal relationships, cleanliness, etc.).

According to the ICD-11, the behavior pattern in gaming disorder must be of sufficient severity to result in significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. The pattern of gaming behavior may be continuous, or episodic and recurrent.

Gender dysphoria

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This diagnosis was formerly known as gender identity disorder. Because this diagnosis was a controversial one, not unlike the controversy that arose in the 1970s regarding the DSM’s inclusion of homosexuality as a diagnosable mental disorder, the criteria and name of gender identity disorder (GID) has been changed in the DSM-5 to gender dysphoria.

In order for someone to be diagnosed with gender dysphoria today, they must exhibit a strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex).

In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a stated desire to be the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, desire to live or be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex.

Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.

General adaptation syndrome

EXPERTS
General adaptation syndrome is a three-stage response that the body has to stress. Stress is sometimes thought of as a mental pressure, but it also has a physical effect on the body. Understanding the stages the body goes through when exposed to stress helps people become more aware of these physical signs of stress when they occur.

The three stages of GAS are:

  • alarm reaction
  • resistance
  • exhaustion

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is more than the normal anxiety people experience day to day. It’s chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even though nothing seems to provoke it. Having this disorder means always anticipating disaster, often worrying excessively about health, money, family, or work. Sometimes, though, the source of the worry is hard to pinpoint. Simply the thought of getting through the day provokes anxiety.

People with GAD can’t seem to shake their concerns, even though they usually realize that their anxiety is more intense than the situation warrants — that it’s irrational. People with GAD also seem unable to relax. They often have trouble falling or staying asleep. Their worries are accompanied by physical symptoms, especially trembling, twitching, muscle tension, headaches, irritability, sweating, or hot flashes. They may feel lightheaded or out of breath. They may feel nauseated or have to go to the bathroom frequently. Or they might feel as though they have a lump in the throat.

Many individuals with GAD startle more easily than other people. They tend to feel tired, have trouble concentrating, and sometimes suffer depression, too.

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Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

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Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a chronic (and often permanent) disorder in which a person has flashbacks of visual hallucinations or distortions experienced during a previous hallucinogenic drug experience, usually lacking the same feelings of mental intoxication experienced before. Hallucinations are usually not intense or impairing and consist of visual snow, light fractals on flat surfaces or other psychedelic visuals. To be diagnosed, the disorder must cause distress or impairment in work or everyday life. The flashbacks may be continuous or just occasional. Symptoms often get worse when focused on.

Hearing voices

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People have many different experiences of hearing voices. Some people don't mind their voices or simply find them irritating or distracting, while others find them frightening or intrusive.It's common to think that if you hear voices you must have a mental health problem. But research shows that lots of people hear voices and many of them are not mentally unwell. It’s a relatively common human experience.

But sometimes hearing voices can be a symptom of some mental health problems, as psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder or severe depression.

Histrionic Personality Disorder

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Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and they feel uncomfortable when they are not. While often lively, interesting, and sometimes dramatic, they have difficulty when people aren’t focused exclusively on them. People with this disorder may be perceived as being shallow, and may engage in sexually seductive or provocative behavior to draw attention to themselves.

Individuals with histrionic personality disorder may have difficulty achieving emotional intimacy in romantic or sexual relationships. Without being aware of it, they often act out a role (e.g., “victim” or “princess”) in their relationships to others. They may seek to control their partner through emotional manipulation or seductiveness on one level, yet displaying a marked dependency on them at another level.

People with histrionic personality disorder may crave novelty, stimulation, and excitement and have a tendency to become bored with their usual routine. These individuals are often intolerant of, or frustrated by, situations that involve delayed gratification, and their actions are often directed at obtaining immediate satisfaction. Although they often initiate a job or project with great enthusiasm, their interest may lag quickly. Longer-term relationships may be neglected to make way for the excitement of new relationships.

Hoarding

EXPERTS
Many people have some belongings they consider special and it's common to save some things because they could come in useful in the future. Hoarding is when your need to keep things causes you distress or interferes with your day to day life

It is increasingly being recognised that hoarding can be a condition by itself, as well as sometimes being a symptom of other mental health problems. People used to think hoarding was a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but research suggests they are not the same.

Huntington's disease

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Huntington's disease is a condition that stops parts of the brain working properly over time. It's passed on (inherited) from a person's parents. It gets gradually worse over time and is usually fatal after a period of up to 20 years.

Huntington's disease is caused by a faulty gene that results in parts of the brain becoming gradually damaged over time.

You're usually only at risk of developing it if one of your parents has or had it. Both men and women can get it.If a parent has the Huntington's disease gene, there's a:

  • 1 in 2 (50%) chance of each of their children developing the condition – affected children are also able to pass the gene to any children they have
  • 1 in 2 (50%) chance of each of their children never developing the condition – unaffected children can't pass the condition on to any children they have

Very occasionally, it's possible to develop Huntington's disease without having a history of it in your family. But this is usually just because one of your parents was never diagnosed with it.

Hypersomnolence (Hypersomnia)

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Hypersomnolence is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness or prolonged nighttime sleep. It has previously been referred to as “hypersomnia,” but this name does not capture both components of its definition.

Rather than feeling tired due to lack of or interrupted sleep at night, persons with hypersomnolence are compelled to nap repeatedly during the day, often at inappropriate times such as during work, during a meal, or in the middle of a conversation. These daytime naps usually provide no relief from symptoms.

Some patients lose the ability to function in family, social, occupational, or other settings.

Some may have a genetic predisposition to hypersomnolence; in others, there is no known cause.

Hypersomnolence typically affects adolescents and young adults.

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Symptoms (Males)

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To meet for this diagnosis, the male must show, “persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual/erotic thoughts or fantasies and desire for sexual activity” to a degree that causes distress or impairments in the man’s life or interpersonal relationships. The judgment of deficiency or absence is made by the clinician, taking into account factors that affect sexual functioning, such as age and the context of the person’s life.

The sexual dysfunction cannot be better explained by another mental disorder (except another sexual dysfunction), the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication), or a general medical condition.

Hypomania and mania

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Hypomania and mania are periods of over-active and excited behaviour that can have a significant impact on your day-to-day life. Hypomania lasts for a few days, and can feel more manageable than mania. It can still have a disruptive effect on your life and people may notice a change in your mood and behaviour. But you will usually be able to continue with your daily activities without these being too badly affected.

Mania lasts for a week or more and has a severe negative impact on your ability to do your usual day-to-day activities – often disrupting or stopping these completely. Severe mania is very serious, and often needs to be treated in hospital.

Hysteria

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Hysteria colloquially means ungovernable emotional excess.Generally, modern medical professionals have abandoned using the term "hysteria" to denote a diagnostic category, replacing it with more precisely defined categories, such as somatization disorder.In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association split phenomenology previously captured by the "hysteria" construct into discrete chapters on conversion, somatization, and dissociative disorders.

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Impostor Syndrome

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Impostor Syndrome is the overwhelming feeling that you don't deserve your success. It convinces you that you're not as intelligent, creative or talented as you may seem. It is the suspicion that your achievements are down to luck, good timing or just being in the “right place at the right time.” And it is accompanied by the fear that, one day, you'll be exposed as a fraud.

Impostor Syndrome can be linked to other feelings of self-doubt, such as fear of success , fear of failure , or self-sabotage . But it's not simply another symptom of low self-confidence, or excessive humility. It involves a constant fear of exposure, isolation and rejection. Impostor Syndrome often strikes at moments of success: starting a new job, receiving an award or promotion, or taking on extra responsibility such as teaching others, starting your own business, or becoming a first-time parent. These feelings can inspire you to work harder, so as not to be "unmasked," leading to further success and recognition – and feeling like an even bigger fraud. But often, they lead to "downshifting." This is when you revise your goals and become less ambitious, which in turn, prevents you from fulfilling your true potential.

Insomnia Disorder

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The predominant complaint in insomnia disorder is difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or nonrestorative sleep, occurring at least 3 nights per week for at least 3 months, despite adequate opportunity for sleep. The sleep disturbance (or associated daytime fatigue) causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of another, more predominant, sleep disorder, such as narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorder, circadian rhythm sleep disorder, or a parasomnia.The insomnia is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication). However, insomnia can occur alongside or as a result of a coexisting mental (e.g., major depressive disorder) or medical condition (e.g., pain) as long as the insomnia is significant enough to warrant its own clinical attention and treatment. For instance, insomnia may also manifest as a clinical feature of a more predominant mental disorder. Persistent insomnia may be a risk factor for depression and is a common residual symptom after treatment for this condition.

Intermittent explosive disorder

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Intermittent explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder.

These intermittent, explosive outbursts cause you significant distress, negatively impact your relationships, work and school, and they can have legal and financial consequences.

Intermittent explosive disorder is a chronic disorder that can continue for years, although the severity of outbursts may decrease with age. Treatment involves medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses.

K

Kleptomania

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Kleptomania symptoms include: Recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal objects that are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value. Increasing sense of tension immediately before committing the theft. Pleasure, gratification, or relief at the time of committing the theft. The stealing is not committed to express anger or vengeance and is not in response to a delusion or a hallucination.

Korsakoff's syndrome

EXPERTSTS
Korsakoff’s syndrome, also known as ‘Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome’, is a non-progressive type of dementia which is most commonly caused by chronic alcohol abuse. For this reason, Korsakoff’s syndrome is also widely regarded as being a form of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD).

L

Lacunar amnesia

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Lacunar amnesia is the loss of memory about a specific event. This specific form of amnesia is caused by brain damage in the limbic system which is responsible for our memories and emotions. When the damage occurs it leaves a lacuna, or a gap, in the record of memory within the cortex region of the brain.

Loneliness

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We all feel lonely from time to time. Feelings of loneliness are personal, so everyone’s experience of loneliness will be different. One common description of loneliness is the feeling we get when our need for rewarding social contact and relationships is not met. But loneliness is not always the same as being alone. You may choose to be alone and live happily without much contact with other people, while others may find this a lonely experience.

Feeling lonely isn’t in itself a mental health problem, but the two are strongly linked. Having a mental health problem can increase your chance of feeling lonely.

M

Maladaptive Daydreaming

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Maladaptive daydreaming is a psychiatric condition. It was identified by Professor Eliezer Somer of the University of Haifa in Israel.

This condition causes intense daydreaming that distracts a person from their real life. Many times, real-life events trigger day dreams. These events can include: topics of conversation, sensory stimuli such as noises or smells,physical experiences

This disorder is not part of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It doesn’t have any official treatment. But some experts say it is a real disorder that can have real effects on a person’s daily life.

Melancholic Depression

EXPERTSTS
Melancholic depression is a form of major depressive disorder (MDD) which presents with melancholic features. MDD is a significant mental health condition characterized by persistent and intense feelings of sadness and hopelessness. The disorder can affect many areas of life, including work, school, and relationships. It may also impact mood and behavior as well as various physical functions, such as appetite and sleep. People with MDD often lose interest in activities they once enjoyed and have trouble getting through the day. Occasionally, they may also feel as if life isn’t worth living.

Misophonia

EXPERTSTS
There are times when chewing, pen tapping, or other little noises bothers us to no end. For those with a condition known as misophonia, however, those sounds are more than just annoying — they can be unbearable.

This hypersensitivity to sound causes a fight-or-flight response in people with the condition that can interfere with their daily lives. They may feel anxiety, rage, and panic upon hearing triggering sounds. This can lead to avoidance, isolation, and depression.

Research into misophonia is still relatively new. Criteria for diagnosing the disorder isn’t yet included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but some doctors have proposed including it under “Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders.”

Mood disorders

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If you have a mood disorder, your general emotional state or mood is distorted or inconsistent with your circumstances and interferes with your ability to function. You may be extremely sad, empty or irritable (depressed), or you may have periods of depression alternating with being excessively happy (mania).

Munchausen's syndrome

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Munchausen's syndrome is a rare psychological and behavioural condition in which somebody fabricates or induces symptoms of illness in themselves.

Munchausen's syndrome is named after a German aristocrat, Baron Munchausen, who became famous for telling wild, unbelievable tales about his exploits and past.

Munchausen's syndrome differs from two, more common, types of feigned illness, hypochondria and malingering. People who have hypochondria actually believe they are ill, but do not manipulate test results. People who malinger pretend to be ill to gain some sort of benefit, such as avoiding military duty or trying to obtain compensation.

People with Munchausen's syndrome know they're making their symptoms up and can be highly manipulative, but their behaviour brings them no obvious benefit. Instead, they often undergo painful and sometimes life-threatening surgery, even though they know it is unnecessary.

The condition is thought to be most common in white men aged between 30 and 50. It is unclear why this is the case.

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder

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Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder in which people have an inflated opinion of themselves. They also have an intense need for the admiration and attention of others. People with NPD may be generally unhappy and disappointed when they’re not given the praise or special favors they believe they deserve. Others may see them as snobbish and conceited, and may not enjoy being around them.

They often have high self-esteem and may believe they are superior or special compared to other people. However, they seem to need excessive praise and admiration, and they may react poorly to perceived criticism. Narcissists also tend to exaggerate their own talents and accomplishments, while downplaying those of others. They are usually preoccupied by power, success, and beauty. They might even engage in impulsive behaviors, such as risky sex and gambling

Narcolepsy

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Narcolepsy is a rare long-term brain condition that causes a person to suddenly fall asleep at inappropriate times.

The brain is unable to regulate sleeping and waking patterns normally, which can result in:

  • excessive daytime sleepiness – feeling very drowsy throughout the day and finding it difficult to concentrate and stay awake
  • sleep attacks – falling asleep suddenly and without warning
  • cataplexy – temporary loss of muscle control resulting in weakness and possible collapse, often in response to emotions such as laughter and anger
  • sleep paralysis – a temporary inability to move or speak when waking up or falling asleep
  • excessive dreaming and waking in the night – dreams often come as you fall asleep (hypnogogic hallucinations) or just before or during waking (hypnopompic hallucinations)
  • Narcolepsy does not cause serious or long-term physical health problems, but it can have a significant impact on daily life and be difficult to cope with emotionally.

Nicotine withdrawal

EXPERTSTS
We all know that stopping smoking improves your physical health.

But it's also proven to boost your mental health and wellbeing: it can improve mood and help relieve stress, anxiety and depression. Most smokers say they want to stop, but some continue because smoking seems to relieve stress and anxiety. It's a common belief that smoking helps you relax. But smoking actually increases anxiety and tension. Smokers are also more likely than non-smokers to develop depressionover time.

When people stop smoking, studies show:

  • anxiety, depression and stress levels are lower
  • quality of life and positive mood improve
  • the dosage of some medicines used to treat mental health problems can be reduced

Night Eating

EXPERTSTS
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a condition that combines overeating at night with sleep problems. With NES, you eat a lot after dinner, have trouble sleeping, and eat when you wake up at night. If you have NES, you eat at least a quarter of your daily calories after dinner. That fact also bothers you.

Night eating syndrome is different from binge eating disorder. With BED, you’re more likely to eat a lot at a single sitting. If you have NES, it’s likely that you eat smaller amounts throughout the night.

Nightmare disorder

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A nightmare is a disturbing dream associated with negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear that awakens you. Nightmares are common in children, but can happen at any age, and occasional nightmares usually are nothing to worry about.

Nightmares may begin in children between 3 and 6 years old and tend to decrease after the age of 10. During the teen and young adult years, girls appear to have nightmares more often than boys do. Some people have them as adults or throughout their lives.

Although nightmares are common, nightmare disorder is relatively rare. Nightmare disorder is when nightmares happen often, cause distress, disrupt sleep, cause problems with daytime functioning or create fear of going to sleep.

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Obsessive love (Disorder)

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Love can be a euphoric feeling. It can also trigger immense devastation when the other person does not return the sentiment. Many people have felt the pain of a broken heart and the intensity of infatuation. Obsessive love takes these emotions further, causing a person to fixate on their loved one as though they are an object or possession.

Health professionals do not widely recognize obsessive love, or “obsessive love disorder,” as a mental health condition.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has two main parts: obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are unwelcome thoughts, images, urges, worries or doubts that repeatedly appear in your mind. They can make you feel very anxious (although some people describe it as 'mental discomfort' rather than anxiety). You can read more about obsessions here. Compulsions are repetitive activities that you do to reduce the anxiety caused by the obsession. It could be something like repeatedly checking a door is locked, repeating a specific phrase in your head or checking how your body feels. You can read more about compulsions here.

You might find that sometimes your obsessions and compulsions are manageable, and at other times they may make your day-to-day life really difficult. They may be more severe when you are stressed about other things, like life changes, health, money, work or relationships.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

EXPERTSTS
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder that’s characterized by extreme perfectionism, order, and neatness. People with OCPD will also feel a severe need to impose their own standards on their outside environment.

The exact cause of OCPD is unknown. Like many aspects of OCPD, the causes have yet to be determined. OCPD may be caused by a combination of genetics and childhood experiences.

In some case studies, adults can recall experiencing OCPD from a very early age. They may have felt that they needed to be a perfect or perfectly obedient child. This need to follow the rules then carries over into adulthood.

Orgasmic Disorder

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Female Orgasmic Disorder:
Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Women exhibit wide variability in the type or intensity of stimulation that triggers orgasm. The diagnosis of female orgasmic disorder should be based on the clinician’s judgment that the woman’s orgasmic capacity is less than would be reasonable for her age, sexual experience, and the adequacy of sexual stimulation she receives. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The orgasmic dysfunction is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Male Orgasmic Disorder (Delayed Ejaculation):
Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity that the clinician, taking into account the person’s age, judges to be adequate in focus, intensity, and duration. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.The orgasmic dysfunction is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (except another sexual dysfunction) and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Opioid Use Disorder Symptoms

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Opioid use disorder — also known as just plain opioid addiction in popular culture — is characterized primarily by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to significant distress or impairment in the person’s life. The person is taking or continues to take the opioid for no legitimate medical reasons, even if they initially were prescribed the drug for a legitimate medical reason. Over time, a person with opioid use disorder develops habits revolving around their opioid use, eventually leading to the person’s entire life being consumed with either gaining access to their next dose, using it, or trying to recover from their last hit.

Most people with this disorder will build up a tolerance to the drug and will experience significant withdrawal symptoms if they attempt to discontinue its use abrutly.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

EXPERTSTS
Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. But if your child or teenager has a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, arguing, defiance or vindictiveness toward you and other authority figures, he or she may have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

As a parent, you don't have to go it alone in trying to manage a child with ODD. Doctors, mental health professionals and child development experts can help.

Behavioral treatment of ODD involves learning skills to help build positive family interactions and to manage problematic behaviors. Additional therapy, and possibly medications, may be needed to treat related mental health disorders.

Orthorexia (ON)

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Healthy eating can lead to major improvements in health and well-being. However, for some people, the focus on healthy eating can become an eating disorder known as orthorexia. Like other feeding and eating disorders, orthorexia is a psychological condition, and a treatment plan designed by health professionals is often required to overcome it.

Orthorexia, or orthorexia nervosa, is an eating disorder that involves an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating. Unlike other eating disorders, orthorexia mostly revolves around food quality — not quantity. People with orthorexia are generally not focused on losing weight (1). Instead, they have an extreme fixation with the purity of their foods, as well as an obsession with the benefits of healthy eating. A few years ago, orthorexia was in the media spotlight because of Jordan Younger, a successful blogger with more than 70,000 Instagram followers. She shocked everyone by describing how her motivation to eat healthy became obsessive to the point of malnutrition.

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Pain Disorder

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Pain in one or more anatomical sites is the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and is severe enough to warrant clinical attention.

The pain causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Psychological factors are judged to have an important role in the onset, severity, exacerbation, or maintenance of the pain.

The symptom or deficit is not intentionally produced or feigned (as in factitious disorder or malingering).

The pain is not better accounted for by a mood, anxiety, or psychotic disorder and does not meet criteria for dyspareunia.

Panic Attacks

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Panic attacks can happen during the day or night. Some people have one panic attack then don't ever experience another, or you might find that you have them regularly, or several in a short space of time. You might notice that particular places, situations or activities seem to trigger panic attacks. For example, they might happen before a stressful appointment.

Most panic attacks last between 5–20 minutes. They can come on very quickly. Your symptoms will usually peak (be at their worst) within 10 minutes. You might also experience symptoms of a panic attack over a longer period of time. This could be because you're having a second panic attack, or you're experiencing other symptoms of anxiety.

Paranoia

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Paranoia is thinking and feeling as if you are under threat even though there is no (or very little) evidence that you are. Paranoid thoughts can also be described as delusions. There are lots of different kinds of threat you might be scared and worried about.

Paranoid thoughts could also be exaggerated suspicions. For example, someone made a nasty comment about you once, and you believe that they are directing a hate campaign against you.

Paranoia is a symptom of some mental health problems and not a diagnosis itself.

Parasomnias

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Parasomnias are a group of sleep disorders that involve unwanted events or experiences that occur while you are falling asleep, sleeping or waking up. Parasomnias may include abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions or dreams. Although the behaviors may be complex and appear purposeful to others, you remain asleep during the event and often have no memory that it occurred. If you have a parasomnia, you may find it hard to sleep through the night.

Parkinson's disease

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Parkinson's disease is a condition in which parts of the brain become progressively damaged over many years.

The 3 main symptoms of Parkinson's disease are: involuntary shaking of particular parts of the body (tremor) ,slow movement, stiff and inflexible muscles

A person with Parkinson's disease can also experience a wide range of other physical and psychological symptoms.

These include: depression and anxiety, balance problems (this may increase the chances of a fall),loss of sense of smell (anosmia),roblems sleeping (insomnia), memory problems.

Partialism

EXPERTS
Partialism is sexual interest with an exclusive focus on a specific part of the body other than the genitals. Partialism is categorized as a fetishistic disorder in the DSM-5 of the American Psychiatric Association only if it causes significant psychosocial distress for the person or has detrimental effects on important areas of their life. In the DSM-IV, it was considered a separate paraphilia(not otherwise specified), but was merged into fetishistic disorder by the DSM-5.] Individuals who exhibit partialism sometimes describe the anatomy of interest to them as having equal or greater erotic attraction for them as do the genitals.Partialism occurs in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexualindividuals. The foot is considered one of the most common partialisms.

Persecutory Delusions

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Persecutory delusions occur when someone believes others are out to harm them despite evidence to the contrary. It’s a type of paranoid thinking that can be part of several different mental illnesses.

Whether an individual thinks his co-workers are sabotaging his work or he believes the government is trying to kill him, persecutory delusions vary in severity. Some individuals with persecutory delusions believe they have to go to great lengths to stay safe—and consequently, they may struggle to function normally.

Whether an individual thinks his co-workers are sabotaging his work or he believes the government is trying to kill him, persecutory delusions vary in severity. Some individuals with persecutory delusions believe they have to go to great lengths to stay safe—and consequently, they may struggle to function normally.

Personality disorders

EXPERTS
If someone has a personality disorder, some aspects of their personality might affect them in a way which makes it very difficult to cope with day to day life, especially when it comes to relation. Our personality is the collection of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that makes each of us the individuals we are. Our personality is the collection of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that makes each of us the individuals we are. We don't always think, feel and behave in exactly the same way – it depends on the situation we are in, the people with us and many other interconnecting factors. However, if you experience significant difficulties in how you relate to yourself and others and have problems coping day to day, you may receive a diagnosis of personality disorder

Phobias

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is an extreme form of fear or anxiety triggered by a particular situation (such as going outside) or object (such as spiders), even when there is no danger.

For example, you may know that it is safe to be out on a balcony in a high-rise block, but feel terrified to go out on it or even enjoy the view from behind the windows inside the building. Likewise, you may know that a spider isn’t poisonous or that it won’t bite you, but this still doesn’t reduce your anxiety. Someone with a phobia may even feel this extreme anxiety just by thinking or talking about the particular situation or object.

Pica

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Pica is an eating disorder that involves a person eating things that they really shouldn’t be eating. Typical non-food things a person might eat when diagnosed with pica include: wool, talcum powder, paint, cloth or clothing, hair, dirt or pebbles, paper, gum, soap, and ice. Pica does not include someone who ingests diet foods or drinks that have no or minimal nutritional value.

Generally pica is not diagnosed in children younger than 2 years old, because many infants will attempt to eat things that are not edible as a part of normal childhood development. Sometimes pica might be diagnosed in conjunction with another mental disorder diagnosis (such as in autism or schizophrenia). If pica is the focus of clinical attention during treatment in addition to another mental health concern, it should generally also be diagnosed.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder which you may develop after being involved in, or witnessing, traumatic events. The condition was first recognised in war veterans and has been known by a variety of names, such as 'shell shock'. But it's not only diagnosed in soldiers – a wide range of traumatic experiences can cause PTSD.

Postnatal depression

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Postnatal depression is a type of depression that many parents experience after having a baby.

It's a common problem, affecting more than 1 in every 10 women within a year of giving birth. It can also affect fathers and partners, although this is less common.

It's important to seek help as soon as possible if you think you might be depressed, as your symptoms could last months or get worse and have a significant impact on you, your baby and your family.

With the right support, which can include self-help strategies and therapy, most women make a full recovery.

Many women feel a bit down, tearful or anxious in the first week after giving birth. This is often called the "baby blues" and is so common that it’s considered normal. The "baby blues" don’t last for more than two weeks after giving birth.

Premature ejaculation

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Premature ejaculation is the most common ejaculation problem. It's where the male ejaculates too quickly during sexual intercourse.

A study looking at 500 couples from 5 different countries found the average time taken to ejaculate during intercourse was around 5-and-a-half minutes. However, it's up to each couple to decide if they’re happy with the time taken – there's no definition of how long sex should last.

Occasional episodes of premature ejaculation are common and are not a cause for concern. However, if you're finding that around half of your attempts at sex result in premature ejaculation, it might help to get treatment.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a very severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which can cause many emotional and physical symptoms every month during the week or two before you start your period. It is sometimes referred to as 'severe PMS'.

While many people who are able to have periods may experience some mild symptoms of PMS, if you have PMDD these symptoms are much worse and can have a serious impact on your life. Experiencing PMDD can make it difficult to work, socialise and have healthy relationships. In some cases, it can also lead to suicidal thoughts.

Problem gambling

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Problem gambling is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop. Problem gambling is often defined by whether harm is experienced by the gambler or others, rather than by the gambler's behaviour. Severe problem gambling may be diagnosed as clinical pathological gambling if the gambler meets certain criteria. Pathological gambling is a common disorder that is associated with both social and family costs.

Problem gambling is an addictive behavior with a high comorbidity with alcohol problems. A common feature shared by people who suffer from gambling addiction is impulsivity.

Pseudologia fantastica (Pathological Liar)

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Pathological lying, also known as mythomania and pseudologia fantastica, is the chronic behavior of compulsive or habitual lying. Unlike telling the occasional white lie to avoid hurting someone’s feelings or getting in trouble, a pathological liar seems to lie for no apparent reason. This can make it frustrating or hard to know what to do if you believe you’ve met one.

Though pathological lying has been recognized for more than a century, there’s not yet a clear universal definition of the condition.

Some pathological lying may result from a mental condition, such as antisocial personality disorder(sometimes called sociopathy), while others appear to have no medical reason for the behavior.

Psychosis

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Psychosis (also called a 'psychotic experience' or 'psychotic episode') is when you perceive or interpret reality in a very different way from people around you. You might be said to 'lose touch' with reality. The most common types of psychotic experiences are hallucinations, delusions and disorganised thinking and speech. You might experience it once, have short episodes throughout your life, or live with it most of the time.

Pyromania a Diagnosable Condition

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When an interest or fascination with fire deviates from healthy to unhealthy, people may instantly say it’s “pyromania.” But there’s a lot of misperceptions and misunderstandings surrounding pyromania. One of the biggest is that an arsonist or anyone who sets a fire is considered a “pyromaniac.” Research doesn’t support this.

Pyromania is often used interchangeably with the terms arson or fire-starting, but these are different. Pyromania is a psychiatric condition. Arson is a criminal act. Fire-starting is a behavior that may or may not be connected to a condition.

Pyromania is very rare and incredibly under-researched, so its actual occurrence is hard to determine. Some research states that only between 3 and 6 percent of people in inpatient psychiatric hospitals meet the diagnostic criteria.

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Reactive Attachment Disorder

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Reactive attachment disorder can develop when a child fails to receive adequate comfort and nurturing from caregivers. It is grouped under “Trauma-and-Stressor-Related Disorders” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. However, even in populations of severely neglected children, the disorder is uncommon, occurring in less than 10 percent of such cases.

An essential feature is that the child exhibits an absent or grossly underdeveloped level of attachment towards caregiving adults compared to what is normal or expected. For example, an infant or very young child would be observed as rarely or minimally turning to their adult caregivers for comfort, support, protection, or nurturance.

Relational Disorder

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A relational disorder occurs between at least two people and involves a pathological problem in the way that they relate to each other. The problem of the relationship is not caused by any one person in the relationship. Rather, the problem is with the relationship itself.

Even though a relationship does not have a mind, a relationship can still exhibit psychological characteristics. In many cases, these characteristics may exist in the relationship, but do not exist in the individuals who make up the relationship. Thus, a relational disorder is looked upon in the same manner as an individual psychological disorder that presents with behavioral and emotional symptoms. These pathological symptoms disrupt the lives of the people involved in the relationship and can lead to the destruction of the relationship.

The DSM-V has defined a relational disorder as “persistent and painful patterns of feelings, behavior, and perceptions involving two or more partners in an important personal relationship.” It is very important to stress that, in a relational disorder, the relationship itself is the problem and not the people involved. Jacob Moreno, psycho-sociologist asserts that it is possible for two psychologically-healthy individuals to have an unhealthy relationship just as it is possible for two psychologically-unhealthy people to have a healthy, constructive relationship.

Currently, relational disorders are broken down into marital and parent-child relational problems. However, a relational disorder can occur to any type of relationship as long as the relationship is important to the people involved in it.

Retrograde Amnesia

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Amnesia is a type of memory loss that affects your ability to make, store, and retrieve memories. Retrograde amnesia affects memories that were formed before the onset of amnesia. Someone who develops retrograde amnesia after a traumatic brain injury may be unable to remember what happened in the years, or even decades, prior to that injury. Retrograde amnesia is caused by damage to the memory-storage areas of the brain, in various brain regions. This type of damage can result from a traumatic injury, a serious illness, a seizure or stroke, or a degenerative brain disease. Depending on the cause, retrograde amnesia can be temporary, permanent, or progressive (getting worse over time).With retrograde amnesia, memory loss usually involves facts rather than skills. For example, someone might forget whether or not they own a car, what type it is, and when they bought it — but they will still know how to drive.

Rumination Disorder

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Rumination disorder, also known as rumination syndrome, is a rare and chronic condition. It affects infants, children, and adults.

People with this disorder regurgitate food after most meals. Regurgitation occurs when recently ingested food rises into the esophagus, throat, and mouth, but isn’t involuntarily or forcefully expelled from the mouth as it is in vomiting.

The main symptom of this disorder is the repeated regurgitation of undigested food. Regurgitation typically occurs between a half hour to two hours after eating. People with this condition regurgitate every day and after almost every meal.

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Schizoaffective disorder

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The word schizoaffective has two parts: ‘schizo–‘ refers to psychotic symptoms ‘–affective’ refers to mood symptoms Schizoaffective disorder is a condition where symptoms of both psychotic and mood disorders are present together, or within a two week period of each other, during one episode. You might have times when you struggle to look after yourself or when your doctors consider that you lack insight into your behaviour and how you are feeling. But you may also have times between episodes where you feel well too.

Episodes can vary in length. Some people have repeated episodes but this does not necessarily happen for everybody. Symptoms usually start when you are a young adult.

Schizoid personality disorder

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Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.

If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or dismissive of others, and you may lack the desire or skill to form close personal relationships. Because you don't tend to show emotion, you may appear as though you don't care about others or what's going on around you.

The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown. Talk therapy, and in some cases medications, can help.

Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia is a diagnosis given to people who experience symptoms of psychosis, alongside what are called ‘negative symptoms’:Psychosis can include hallucinations, delusions, paranoia and confused thoughts and feelings. Negative symptoms include withdrawal from family and friends and an extreme lack of interest and motivation generally.

Only a psychiatrist can diagnose schizophrenia. They will make a diagnosis by asking questions about a person's thoughts and feelings.

There is a lot of disagreement over whether the diagnosis of schizophrenia should still be used and whether focusing on the individual symptoms would be more helpful. However, it is important to remember that a diagnosis is not a label. It is a tool to help professionals decide what types of treatment and support may help. Diagnoses may also change over the course of someone's lifetime.

Schizophreniform Disorder

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Schizophreniform disorder is a psychotic disorder diagnosed in someone who shows symptoms of schizophrenia for the better part of at least one month but for less than six months. If the symptoms persist for six months or more, the diagnosis is changed to schizophrenia or, in some cases, bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. Someone with schizophreniform disorder cannot differentiate between what is real and what is imagined to a degree that affects their thought process, behavior, emotional expression, and interpersonal relationships. To meet the criteria for schizophreniform disorder, the symptoms must not be due to medication or recreational drugs, or to another medical or psychological problem.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD)

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Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) is one type of eccentric personality disorder. If you have STPD, your behavior and mannerisms may appear strange to others. While STPD is on the schizophrenia spectrum, people with STPD don’t usually experience psychosis.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

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Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that you experience during particular seasons or times of year. Depression is a low mood that lasts for a long time, and affects your everyday life.

It's common to be affected by changing seasons and weather, or to have times of year when you feel more or less comfortable. For example, you might find that your mood or energy levels drop when it gets colder or warmer, or notice changes in your sleeping or eating patterns.

SAD can affect you during any season or time of year. Some people experience it in summer, although less research has been conducted on this so you might find people are more aware of winter SAD.

Selective mutism

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Selective mutism is a severe anxiety disorder where a person is unable to speak in certain social situations, such as with classmates at school or to relatives they do not see very often. It usually starts during childhood and, if left untreated, can persist into adulthood. A child or adult with selective mutism does not refuse or choose not to speak at certain times, they're literally unable to speak. The expectation to talk to certain people triggers a freeze response with feelings of panic, like a bad case of stage fright, and talking is impossible. In time, the person will learn to anticipate the situations that provoke this distressing reaction and do all they can to avoid them. However, people with selective mutism are able to speak freely to certain people, such as close family and friends, when nobody else is around to trigger the freeze response.

Selective mutism affects about 1 in 140 young children. It's more common in girls and children who are learning a second language, such as those who've recently migrated from their country of birth.

Self harm

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Self-harm is when you hurt yourself as a way of dealing with very difficult feelings, painful memories or overwhelming situations and experiences. After self-harming you may feel a short-term sense of release, but the cause of your distress is unlikely to have gone away. Self-harm can also bring up very difficult emotions and could make you feel worse. Even though there are always reasons underneath someone hurting themselves, it is important to know that self-harm does carry risks. Once you have started to depend on self-harm, it can take a long time to stop.

Sexual fetishism

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Some people become sexually aroused by an object or part of the body that's not typically considered sexual, such as feet or hair.

Others may develop a liking for a particular lifestyle that allows them to live out their fetish or interest in erotic role-playing, such as bondage, dominance, submission, and sadomasochism (BDSM). Think “Fifty Shades of Grey.”

Fetishes and alternative erotic lifestyles come in a wide variety of forms, from common to extreme.

Sleep apnoea

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Sleep apnoea is a breathing disorder during sleep, typically accompanied by loud snoring. The person will stop breathing briefly at intervals during the night, which wakes them up briefly - constantly interrupting their rest. People with sleep apnoea wake up to breathe hundreds of times during the night, which makes them very tired during the day. Usually they aren't conscious of these brief awakenings. In one form of sleep apnoea, called Obstructive Sleep Apnoea, the upper airway is restricted, making this a potentially life-threatening condition needing urgent medical attention.

Sleep disorder

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Sleep is not just 'time out' from our busy routine. Most of us need to sleep well to help our bodies recover from the day and to allow healing to take place.

But with increasingly busy lives it's estimated that we now sleep around 90 minutes less each night than we did in the 1920s. If you add to this the large numbers who are known to have problems sleeping, it's obvious that many people are now functioning in a permanently sleep-deprived state.

Lack of sleep can make us feel physically unwell as well as stressed and anxious, and scientists also believe that it contributes to heart disease, premature ageing and road accident deaths

If sleep problems don't respond to the life-style changes or behavioural approaches suggested above, you need to see your doctor. It may be worth keeping a sleep diary for the 10 days before your visit so you can explain the problem. Doctors will generally look for any underlying medical or psychological reason for the problem and may suggest further changes to your routine or lifestyle to help improve your sleep.

Sleep paralysis

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Sleep paralysis is a temporary loss of muscle function while you’re sleeping. It typically occurs as a person is falling asleep, shortly after they have fallen asleep, or while they’re waking up.

According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, those with sleep paralysis usually experience this condition for the first time between 14 and 17 years old.

It’s a fairly common sleep condition. Researchers estimate it occurs in anywhere between 5 and 40 percent of people.

Episodes of sleep paralysis may occur along with another sleep disorder known as narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming drowsiness and sudden “sleep attacks” throughout the day. However, many people who don’t have narcolepsy can still experience sleep paralysis.

This condition isn’t dangerous. Though it can feel alarming to some, no medical intervention is usually necessary.

Sleep terrors

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Sleep terrors are episodes of screaming, intense fear and flailing while still asleep. Also known as night terrors, sleep terrors often are paired with sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired occurrence during sleep. A sleep terror episode usually lasts from seconds to a few minutes, but episodes may last longer.

Sleep terrors affect almost 40 percent of children and a much smaller percentage of adults. However frightening, sleep terrors aren't usually a cause for concern. Most children outgrow sleep terrors by their teenage years.

Sleep terrors may require treatment if they cause problems getting enough sleep or they pose a safety risk.

Sleepwalking disorder

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Sleepwalking — also known as somnambulism — involves getting up and walking around while in a state of sleep. More common in children than adults, sleepwalking is usually outgrown by the teen years. Isolated incidents of sleepwalking often don't signal any serious problems or require treatment. However, recurrent sleepwalking may suggest an underlying sleep disorder.

Sleepwalking in adults has a higher chance of being confused with or coexisting with other sleep disorders as well as medical conditions.

If anyone in your household sleepwalks, it's important to protect him or her from potential injuries related to sleepwalking.

Social anxiety (social phobia)

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Social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, is a long-lasting and overwhelming fear of social situations. It's a common problem that usually starts during the teenage years. For some people it gets better as they get older, although for many it does not go away on its own. It can be very distressing and have a big impact on your life, but there are ways to help you deal with it.

Social anxiety is more than shyness. It's an intense fear that does not go away and affects everyday activities, self-confidence, relationships and work or school life. Many people occasionally worry about social situations, but someone with social anxiety feels overly worried before, during and after them.

Sociopath

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A sociopath is a term used to describe someone who has antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). People with ASPD can’t understand others’ feelings. They’ll often break rules or make impulsive decisions without feeling guilty for the harm they cause.

People with ASPD may also use “mind games” to control friends, family members, co-workers, and even strangers. They may also be perceived as charismatic or charming.

Specific Phobia

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Many people experience specific phobias, intense, irrational fears of certain things or situations–dogs, closed-in places, heights, escalators, tunnels, highway driving, water, flying, and injuries involving blood are a few of the more common ones. Phobias aren’t just extreme fear; they are irrational fear. You may be able to ski the world’s tallest mountains with ease but panic going above the 10th floor of an office building. Adults with phobias realize their fears are irrational, but often facing, or even thinking about facing.

Specific phobias strike more than 1 in 10 people. No one knows just what causes them, though they seem to run in families and are more prevalent in women. Phobias usually first appear in adolescence or adulthood. They start suddenly and tend to be more persistent than childhood phobias; only about 20 percent of adult phobias vanish on their own. When children have specific phobias — for example, a fear of animals — those fears usually disappear over time, though they may continue into adulthood. No one knows why they hang on in some people and disappear in others.

Stereotypic Movement Disorder

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Stereotypic movement disorder is a motor disorder that develops in childhood and involves repetitive, purposeless movement. Examples of stereotypic movements include hand waving, body rocking, and head banging. A diagnosis is only given if the repetitive movement causes distress in a child and leads to impairment in day-to-day functioning.

Simple stereotypic movements such as rocking are common in young children and do not indicate a movement disorder. Complex stereotypic movements, however, are less common and occur in 3 to 4 percent of children. Motor stereotypies are often diagnosed in people with intellectual disabilities and neurodevelopmental conditions but are also found in typically developing children.

Stockholm Syndrome

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Stockholm syndrome is commonly linked to high profile kidnappings and hostage situations. Aside from famous crime cases, regular people may also develop this psychological condition in response to various types of trauma.

Stockholm syndrome is a psychological response. It occurs when hostages or abuse victims bond with their captors or abusers. This psychological connection develops over the course of the days, weeks, months, or even years of captivity or abuse. With this syndrome, hostages or abuse victims may come to sympathize with their captives. This is the opposite of the fear, terror, and disdain that might be expected from the victims in these situations.

Over the course of time, some victims do come to develop positive feelings toward their captors. They may even begin to feel as if they share common goals and causes. The victim may begin to develop negative feelings toward the police or authorities. They may resent anyone who may be trying to help them escape from the dangerous situation they’re in. This paradox does not happen with every hostage or victim, and it’s unclear why it occurs when it does. Many psychologists and medical professionals consider Stockholm syndrome a coping mechanism, or a way to help victims handle the trauma of a terrifying situation.

Stuttering

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Stuttering — also called stammering or childhood-onset fluency disorder — is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant problems with normal fluency and flow of speech. People who stutter know what they want to say, but have difficulty saying it. For example, they may repeat or prolong a word, a syllable, or a consonant or vowel sound. Or they may pause during speech because they've reached a problematic word or sound.

Stuttering is common among young children as a normal part of learning to speak. Young children may stutter when their speech and language abilities aren't developed enough to keep up with what they want to say. Most children outgrow this developmental stuttering. Sometimes, however, stuttering is a chronic condition that persists into adulthood. This type of stuttering can have an impact on self-esteem and interactions with other people. Children and adults who stutter may benefit from treatments such as speech therapy, using electronic devices to improve speech fluency or cognitive behavioral therapy

Substance-related disorder

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Mental health problems and substance use disorders sometimes occur together. This is because: Certain illegal drugs can cause people with an addiction to experience one or more symptoms of a mental health problem, Mental health problems can sometimes lead to alcohol or drug use, as some people with a mental health problem may misuse these substances as a form of self-medication, Mental and substance use disorders share some underlying causes, including changes in brain composition, genetic vulnerabilities, and early exposure to stress or trauma

More than one in four adults living with serious mental health problems also has a substance use problem. Substance use problems occur more frequently with certain mental health problems, including:

Suicidal feelings

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Suicide is the act of intentionally taking your own life. Suicidal feelings can range from being preoccupied by abstract thoughts about ending your life, or feeling that people would be better off without you, to thinking about methods of suicide, or making clear plans to take your own life. If you are feeling suicidal, you might be scared or confused by these feelings. But you are not alone. Many people think about suicide at some point in their lifetime.

Suicidal feelings can be overwhelming. How long these feelings last differs for everyone. It is common to feel as if you'll never be happy or hopeful again. But with support and self-help, the majority of people who have felt suicidal go on to live fulfilling lives. The earlier you let someone know how you're feeling, the quicker you'll be able to get support to overcome these feelings. However, it can feel difficult to open up to people.

Suicide

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If you're dealing with suicidal thoughts or thinking about self-harm, it's important to know that you're not alone.

https://www.nhsinform.scot/campaigns/suicide

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Tardive dyskinesia (TD)

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Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a condition where your face and/or body make sudden, jerky or slow twisting movements which you can’t control. It can develop as a side effect of medication, most commonly antipsychotic drugs.

‘Tardive’ means delayed or appearing late (because it usually only develops after you’ve been taking medication for at least a few months and sometimes years). ‘Dyskinesia’ means abnormal or unusual movements.

Awareness of TD has improved over the years, but unfortunately doctors don’t always remember to tell people about this risk when they prescribe antipsychotics.

Tourette’s Disorder

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The essential features of Tourette’s disorder are multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics, expressing themselves many times a day for at least 1 year. These may appear simultaneously or at different periods during the illness.

The anatomical location, number, frequency, complexity, and severity of the tics change over time. The tics typically involve the head and, frequently, other parts of the body, such as the torso and upper and lower limbs. The vocal tics include various words or sounds such as clicks, grunts, yelps, barks, sniffs, snorts, and coughs.

Coprolalia, a complex vocal tic involving the uttering of obscenities, is present in a few individuals (less than 10%) with this disorder.

Complex motor tics involving touching, squatting, deep knee bends, retracing steps, and twirling when walking may be present. In approximately one-half the individuals with this disorder, the first symptoms to appear are bouts of a single tic; most frequently, eye blinking; less frequently, tics involving another part of the face or the body. Initial symptoms can also include tongue protrusion, squatting, sniffing, hopping, skipping, throat clearing, stuttering, uttering sounds or words, and coprolalia. The other cases begin with multiple symptoms.

Transient global amnesia(TGA)

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Transient global amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a more common neurological condition, such as epilepsy or stroke.

During an episode of transient global amnesia, your recall of recent events simply vanishes, so you can't remember where you are or how you got there. In addition, you may not remember anything about what's happening in the here and now. Consequently, you may keep repeating the same questions because you don't remember the answers you've just been given. You may also draw a blank when asked to remember things that happened a day, a month or even a year ago.

The condition most often affects people in middle or older age. With transient global amnesia, you do remember who you are, and you recognize the people you know well. Episodes of transient global amnesia always improve gradually over a few hours. During recovery, you may slowly begin to remember events and circumstances. Transient global amnesia isn't serious, but it can still be frightening.

Transient Tic Disorder

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The essential feature of transient tic disorder is the presence of single or multiple motor tics and/or vocal tics. The tics occur many times a day. A tic is a sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization. The vocal tics include various words or sounds such as clicks, grunts, yelps, barks, sniffs, snorts, and coughs.

Specific Symptoms of Transient Tic Disorder

  • Single or multiple motor and/or vocal tics (i.e., sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements, or vocalizations)
  • The tics occur many times a day, nearly every day for at least 4 weeks, but for no longer than 12 consecutive months.
  • The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  • The onset is before age 18 years.
  • The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., stimulants) or a general medical condition (e.g., Huntington’s disease or postviral encephalitis).
  • Criteria have never been met for Tourette’s disorder or chronic motor or vocal tic disorder.

Trauma

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Going through very stressful, frightening or distressing events is sometimes called trauma. When we talk about emotional or psychological trauma, we might mean: situations or events we find traumatic , how we're affected by our experiences. Traumatic events can happen at any age and can cause long-lasting harm. Everyone has a different reaction to trauma, so you might notice any effects quickly, or a long time afterwards.

If you've been affected by trauma, it's important to remember that you survived however you could and are having common, normal reactions.

Trichotillomania

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Trichotillomania is primarily characterized by the recurrent pulling out of one’s own hair. Hair pulling may occur from any region of the body — such as your scalp, eyelids or eyebrows. Less common areas where trichotillomania occurs includes pulling out facial hair, pulling out hair from your arms, legs, armpits, or pubic hair. Hair pulling sites may vary over time.

The prevalence of this disorder is approximately 1 – 2 percent of the population. It occurs more frequently in females than males (10:1 ratio).